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All in all, more radiocarbon and dendro-dates would be highly desirable. The Urnfield culture grew from the preceding Tumulus culture.
Some graves contain a combination of Tumulus-culture pottery and Urnfield swords Kressbronn, Bodenseekreis or Tumulus culture incised pottery together with early Urnfield types Mengen.
In the North, the Urnfield culture was only adopted in the HaA2 period. This demonstrates a considerable ritual continuity.
The origins of the cremation rite are commonly believed to be in Hungary , where it was widespread since the first half of the second millennium BC.
Some cremations begin to be found in the Proto-Lusatian and Trzciniec culture. The Urnfield culture was located in an area stretching from western Hungary to eastern France, from the Alps to near the North Sea.
Local groups, mainly differentiated by pottery, include:. South-German Urnfield culture. Lower-Rhine Urnfield culture. Middle-Danube Urnfield culture.
Sometimes the distribution of artifacts belonging to these groups shows sharp and consistent borders, which might indicate some political structures, like tribes.
Metalwork is commonly of a much more widespread distribution than pottery and does not conform to these borders. It may have been produced at specialised workshops catering for the elite of a large area.
An unusual earthwork was constructed at Goloring near Koblenz in Germany. The central European Lusatian culture forms part of the Urnfield tradition, but continues into the Iron Age without a notable break.
The Piliny culture in northern Hungary and Slovakia grew from the Tumulus culture , but used urn burials as well. Urnfields are found in the French Languedoc and Catalonia from the 9th to 8th centuries.
The change in burial custom was most probably influenced by developments further east. The Golasecca culture in northern Italy developed with continuity from the Canegrate culture.
Placename evidence has also been used to point to an association of the Urnfield materials with a Proto-Celtic language group in central Europe, and it has been argued that it was the ancestral culture of the Celts.
The influence of the Urnfield culture spread widely and found its way to the northeastern Iberian coast, where the nearby Celtiberians of the interior adapted it for use in their cemeteries.
The numerous hoards of the Urnfield culture and the existence of fortified settlements hill forts were taken as evidence for widespread warfare and upheaval by some scholars.
Written sources describe several collapses and upheavals in the Eastern Mediterranean, Anatolia and the Levant around the time of the Urnfield origins:.
Some scholars, among them Wolfgang Kimmig and P. Bosch-Gimpera have postulated a Europe-wide wave of migrations. Better methods of dating have shown that these events are not as closely connected as once thought.
More recently Robert Drews , after having reviewed and dismissed the migration hypothesis, has suggested that the observed cultural associations may be in fact partly explained as the result of a new kind of warfare based upon the slashing Naue II sword ,  and with bands of infantry replacing chariots in warfare.
Drews suggests that the political instability that this brought to centralised states based upon maryannu chariotry caused the breakdown of these polities.
The number of settlements increased sharply in comparison with the preceding Tumulus culture. Unfortunately, few have been comprehensively excavated.
Fortified settlements, often on hilltops or in river-bends, are typical for the Urnfield culture. They are heavily fortified with dry-stone or wooden ramparts.
Excavations of open settlements are rare, but they show that large aisled houses built with wooden posts and wall of wattle and daub were common.
Pit dwellings are known as well; they might have served as cellars. The houses were one or two-aisled.
Some were quite small, 4. They were built with wooden posts and walls of wattle and daub. The settlement of Radonice Louny contained over pits.
They were most probably used to store grain and demonstrate a considerable surplus-production. On lakes of southern Germany and Switzerland, numerous pile dwellings were constructed.
They consist either of simple one-room houses made of wattle and daub, or log-built. The settlement at Zug , Switzerland, was destroyed by fire and gives important insights into the material culture and the settlement organisation of this period.
It has yielded a number of dendro-dates as well. Fortified hilltop settlements become common in the Urnfield period. Often a steep spur was used, where only part of the circumference had to be fortified.
Depending on the locally available materials, dry-stone walls, gridded timbers filled with stones or soil or plank and palisade type pfostenschlitzmauer fortifications were used.
Other fortified settlements used river-bends and swampy areas. Most settlements are much smaller. Metal working is concentrated in the fortified settlements.
On the Runder Berg near Urach, Germany, 25 stone moulds have been found. Hillforts are interpreted as central places. Some scholars see the emergence of hill forts as a sign of increased warfare.
Most hillforts were abandoned at the end of the Bronze Age. As far as we know, there are no special dwellings for an upper class, but few settlements have been excavated to any extent.
The pottery is normally well made, with a smooth surface and a normally sharply carinated profile. Some forms are thought to imitate metal prototypes.
Biconical pots with cylindrical necks are especially characteristic. There is some incised decoration, but a large part of the surface was normally left plain.
Fluted decoration is common. In the Swiss pile dwellings, the incised decoration was sometimes inlaid with tin foil. Pottery kilns were already known Elchinger Kreuz, Bavaria , as is indicated by the homogeneous surface of the vessels as well.
The early Urnfield period BC was a time when the warriors of central Europe could be heavily armored with body armor, helmets and shields all made of bronze, most likely borrowing the idea from Mycenaean Greece.
The leaf-shaped Urnfield sword could be used for slashing, in contrast to the stabbing-swords of the preceding Tumulus culture.
It commonly possessed a ricasso. The hilt was normally made from bronze as well. It was cast separately and consisted of a different alloy.
These solid hilted swords were known since Bronze D Rixheim swords. Other swords have tanged blades and probably had a wood, bone, or antler hilt.
Flange-hilted swords had organic inlays in the hilt. Protective gear like shields , cuirasses , greaves and helmets are extremely rare and almost never found in burials.
They are supposed to have been made in upper Italy or the Eastern Alps and imitate wooden shields. Irish bogs have yielded examples of leather shields Clonbrinn, Co.
Bronze dishes phalerae may have been sewn on a leather armour. About a dozen wagon -burials of four wheeled wagons with bronze fittings are known from the early Urnfield period.
They include Hart an der Altz Kr. Altötting , Mengen Kr. Sigmaringen , Poing Kr. Ebersberg , Königsbronn Kr. Heidenheim from Germany and St.
Sulpice Vaud , Switzerland. In Alz, the chariot had been placed on the pyre, pieces of bone are attached to the partially melted metal of the axles.
Bronze one-part bits appear at the same time. Two-part horse bits are only known from late Urnfield contexts and may be due to eastern influence.
Wood- and bronze spoked wheels are known from Stade Germany , a wooden spoked wheel from Mercurago, Italy. This exceptionally rich burial was covered by a barrow.
Such wagons are known from the Nordic Bronze Age as well. At Pekatel Kr. Another example comes from Ystad in Sweden.
Clay miniature wagons, sometimes with waterfowl were known there since the middle Bronze Age Dupljaja, Vojvodina, Serbia. The Lusatian chariot from Burg Brandenburg , Germany has three wheels on a single axle , on which waterfowl perch.
The grave of Gammertingen Kr. Sigmaringen, Germany contained two socketed horned applications that probably belonged to a miniature wagon comparable to the Burg example, together with six miniature spoked wheels.
Miniature bronze wagon from Acholshausen in Germany. Bronze wheel pendants, Zürich , c. Bronze wheels from Hassloch in Germany, BC.
Hoards are very common in the Urnfield culture. The custom is abandoned at the end of the Bronze Age. They were often deposited in rivers and wet places like swamps.
As these spots were often quite inaccessible, they most probably represent gifts to the gods. Other hoards contain either broken or miscast objects that were probably intended for reuse by bronze smiths.
As Late Urnfield hoards often contain the same range of objects as earlier graves, some scholars interpret hoarding as a way to supply personal equipment for the hereafter.
An iron ring from Vorwohlde Kr. Hersbruck and knives Dotternhausen, Plettenberg , Germany and pins. The use of iron for weapons and domestic items in Europe only started in the following Hallstatt culture.
Cattle, pigs, sheep and goats were kept, as well as horses, dogs and geese. The cattle were rather small, with a height of 1. Horses were not much bigger with a mean of 1.
Forest clearance was intensive in the Urnfield period. Probably open meadows were created for the first time, as shown by pollen analysis.
This led to increased erosion and sediment-load of the rivers. Wheat and barley were cultivated, together with pulses and the horse bean.
Poppy seeds were used for oil or as a drug. Millet and oats were cultivated for the first time in Hungary and Bohemia, rye was already cultivated, further west it was only a noxious weed.
Flax seems to have been of reduced importance, maybe because mainly wool was used for clothes. Hazel nuts, apples, pears, sloes and acorns were collected.
Some rich graves contain bronze sieves that have been interpreted as wine -sieves Hart an der Alz.
This beverage would have been imported from the South, but supporting evidence is lacking. In the lacustrine settlement of Zug, remains of a broth made of spelt and millet have been found.
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